Rachel Connors, RN, works for a local health department in t
Rachel Connors, RN, works for a local health department in the… Rachel Connors, RN, works for a local health department in the United States. She has been contacted by multiple concerned citizens asking about the spread of Zika and information on prevention. Rachel decides to hold an information session for the community and begins preparing a program for local citizens.Rachel’s preliminary investigation into Zika has resulted in a wealth of information. Zika is an emerging health issue with global implications. Zika virus is a vector-borne illness spread by mosquitos and has gained international attention. Recently, it has been shown that Zika can also be transmitted sexually, through blood products, and from mother to fetus. In March 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Zika an international health emergency with presence in 40 countries.Treatment for Zika is supportive in nature. Currently, there is no cure or vaccine for Zika. Efforts to prevent Zika focus on preventing mosquito bites and safer sex practices using a barrier method. The Zika epidemic has serious financial, health, and ethical consequences, especially for countries with limited resources.Which of the following is the best resource for reliable information on Zika virus?a. Flyers posted at the local libraryb. A journal article in Time magazinec. An internet search using the CDC.gov websited. An internet search using WikipediaRachel wants more information on how Zika will impact the population. She refers to the CDC website for more information. Rachel discovers that Zika impacts individuals, communities, and populations.Impact on IndividualsOnly 20 percent of those infected with Zika develop the disease. Most people infected with the virus have no symptoms at all, while others have mild symptoms such as fever, rash, headache, muscle and/or joint pain, or conjunctivitis for up to seven days. People rarely require hospitalization or die from infection. The biggest threat Zika poses is to pregnant womenthe fetus can die or be born with microcephaly. Zika has also been linked with an increased risk for Guillain-Barré syndrome.Impact on CommunitiesIndividuals infected with Zika may stress existing community resources. Communities must have adequate numbers of health care professionals (HCPs) who are knowledgeable about Zika risk prevention and identification, laboratory facilities that can test for viral loads, and facilities where people can obtain reliable information about the disease and treatment. All HCPs must be well versed in screening s to assess risk for Zika among their patients since early identification can help reduce transmission to others.Health care systems may also be impacted by the increase in the number of infants born with neurologic issues. Follow-up during the first year after birth is recommended for infants born to mothers infected with Zika during pregnancy in order to assess for neurologic conditions that may not be as apparent as microcephaly. Speech and learning disabilities may become apparent beyond the first year. It is estimated that lifelong health care for one child with microcephaly can cost $10 million. Emerging health issues related to Zika may pose a challenge for HCPs across all disciplines in the future.Impact on PopulationsThe CDC recommends that women with Zika virus wait at least eight weeks before conception and that men with the virus wait at least six months before attempting conception to decrease the risk of fetal transmission. These recommendations may have an impact on population growth. For example, the health minister in Puerto Rico recommended delaying pregnancy in light of the Zika epidemic and there has been an eight percent decrease in the pregnancy rate from the previous year. Microcephaly may also influence population growth. Microcephaly causes a wide variety of lifelong complications including seizures, cognitive and developmental delay, mobility issues, speech and swallowing issues, and hearing and vision loss. Individuals born with microcephaly may not be developmentally capable of reproduction. The neurologic needs and possible learning disabilities associated with microcephaly may also place a great burden on the school systems. 1.Which of the following is not an appropriate screeningfor assessing Zika risk in a pregnant woman?a. Have you traveled during pregnancy? If so, where and how long did you stay?b. Has your partner lived in or traveled to any area where mosquitos are spreading Zika during your pregnancy?c. Have you received the vaccine for Zika virus?d. Did you protect yourself from mosquito bites before and during your pregnancy? 2. Review the CDC’s recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents aged 18 years or younger and evaluate this statement: Infants should receive the first dose of which of the following vaccines at two months of age? (Select all that apply.)a. Diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussisb. Haemophilus influenzae type bc. Varicellad. Hepatitis Ae. Human papillomavirus (HPV) Health Science Science Nursing UNRS 384
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