Please use example below about colorectal cancer screening a
Please use example below about colorectal cancer screening as a… Please use example below about colorectal cancer screening as a guide to provide an example for each audience and apply the health belief model to the following audiences: Primary audience: adolescents with mental health issues Secondary audience: teachers, relatives, parents, health care providers. Tertiary- community, local departments of health. How you can incorporate this health belief model in an adolescent media campaign to communicate the information to your targeted audiences. Health Belief ModelThe Health Belief Model (HBM) was one of the first in the field of public health to explain individual health behaviors, particularly individual decisions to participate in public health services such as free tuberculosis screening programs. In the HBM, several sets of beliefs either motivate or discourage people to take on certain health behaviors: Perceived susceptibility: Your sense of personal risk for a health condition. Perceived severity: Your belief about how serious this condition is. Perceived benefits of interventions: Your perception of the effectiveness of taking action. Perceived barriers or costs of interventions: Your perception of the monetary, physical, or psychosocial costs to perform a behavior. Cues to activate behavior change: Specific messages or indicators that might prompt you to take action. Self-efficacy to perform the behavior: Your confidence about performing this specific action. The HBM fell out of favor for a couple of decades, particularly when developing interventions for adolescents and young adults, who generally feel invulnerable to risk. However, the HBM appears to be coming into wide use again, particularly in developing interventions for older Americans. Box 8-1 provides an example of HBM applied to colorectal cancer screening.21 Box 8-1 Example of HBM Applied to Colorectal Cancer ScreeningThe American Cancer Society21 recommends that beginning at age 50, both men and women at average risk for developing colorectal cancer should use one of several recommended screening tests. The tests that are designed to find both early cancer and polyps are preferred if these tests are available to you and you are willing to have one of these more invasive tests.Tests that find polyps and cancer Flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years.a Colonoscopy every 10 years. Double contrast barium enema every 5 years.a CT colonography (virtual colonoscopy) every 5 years.aTests that mainly find cancer Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) every year.a,b Fecal immunochemical test (FIT) every year.a,b Stool DNA test (sDNA), interval uncertain.aSet of hypothetical factors from HBM that may influence a decision to have a colonoscopy to screen for colorectal cancer c Perceived susceptibility: Personal risk for developing cancer; particular concerns about colorectal cancer, or any cancer, based on family history. Perceived severity: Most people believe that cancer of any kind is very bad. Many people have known those who have died of colorectal cancer. Perceived benefits of interventions: An important message to stress about the colonoscopy is that polyps will be removed, and the chance of cancer virtually eliminated, if caught at an early stage. Another important benefit is that for someone found to have no polyps, and having no additional risk, the test is performed every 10 years. Perceived barriers or costs of interventions: Insurance to cover procedure; trusted physician; enema clean-out required; day of work lost; transportation home; fear of procedure [which is, in fact, done under anesthesia (twilight sleep) and painless]; and for many, men in particular, unpleasant perceptions of a rectal procedure. Cues to activate behavior change: Public messages that emphasize the higher death rate from colorectal cancer among African Americans are used to encourage their participation in colorectal cancer programs. Primary care physicians provide important cues when performing routine care for patients of appropriate age. Self-efficacy to perform the behavior: Arranging and organizing the appointment is the primary concern for self-efficacy. To overcome this and the obstacles previously listed, some programs use “patient navigators” to discuss what needs to be done and facilitate making an appointment. Health Science Science Nursing PHE 330
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