Part 1: Identifying the Unit of Analysis: Ecologic versus…

Part 1: Identifying the Unit of Analysis: Ecologic versus… Part 1: Identifying the Unit of Analysis: Ecologic versus Cross-Sectional Studies (20 points in total, 2 points each)All of the study descriptions in Part 1 pertain to either ecologic or cross-sectional studies.  For each one, first name the unit of analysis (1 point each).  If it is a mixed ecologic study, with two different units of analysis, list both.  Then identify the study design: ecologic or cross-sectional (1 point each).  Examples: 1.         The level of unemployment was used as a measure of economic distress in Germany.  Researchers examined the association between economic distress and general anxiety syndrome across states in Germany. Unit of Analysis: the state (It is a sample of German states.) Study Design: Ecologic 2.         A survey was conducted in which the height, weight, level of alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in a sample of men and women aged 30-59 were measured. Unit of Analysis: the individual man or woman (It is a sample of men and women.) Study Design: Cross-sectional In a comparison of 60 Guatemalan villages, the average daily intake of dietary iron was correlated with the prevalence of anemia. Unit of Analysis: Study Design:  2. A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of both mild and major depression among white, black and Hispanic males and females.Unit of Analysis: Study Design:3. A survey was conducted in Starr County, Texas to determine the prevalence of obesity among the residents.Unit of Analysis: Study Design: 4. Incidence rates of gonorrhea and rates of premature death before age 65 were correlated with high percentages of boarded up houses in 107 U.S. cities. Unit of Analysis: Study Design: 5. The degree of income inequality in a country was found to be positively correlated with the all-cause mortality rate.  Among developed countries this was true, even after the median national income had been taken into account.Unit of Analysis: Study Design: 6. Data were obtained from birth certificates on the birth weights of singleton infants born to American-born black and white mothers, and African-born mothers in Illinois and compared between the three racial and nativity groups.Unit of Analysis: Study Design:7. Cause and sex-specific mortality rates from coronary heart disease under the age of 75 were computed for the 408 local districts of Britain between 1994 and 2008.  These districts were categorized into quartiles according to socioeconomic status.  Over the 15-year period, rates of premature mortality from coronary heart disease had declined in all quartiles and for both sexes.  Districts in the lowest socioeconomic quartile had consistently higher rates than those in better off districts.  The gap in mortality rates between the lowest and highest socioeconomic status districts had, however, decreased in absolute terms. Unit(s) of Analysis: Study Design: 8. A survey was done to determine the health status of the homeless population in Chicago.  Interviews and simple medical tests were performed free at every participating shelter in the city.  Offers of $25 and a free meal were given in return for participation in the study. The prevalence of nutritional deficiencies in this population was found to be high for the United States.Unit of Analysis: Study Design: 9. A sample of 6,630 children attending public schools was taken in Texas to determine the prevalence of overweight in the 4th, 8th and 11th grades.  Twenty-two percent of 4th graders, 19% of 8th graders and 15.5% of 11th graders were found to be overweight. Unit of Analysis: Study Design:  10. U.S. counties were categorized as having high, medium, or low opioid prescription rates.  Prevalence of gastroschisis (a birth defect in which the baby is born with his/her intestines hanging outside of his/her body through a hole near the belly button) was then correlated with the rates of opioid prescription in each type of county. Unit of Analysis: Study Design:  Health Science Science Nursing EPIDEMIOLO 613

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