Mumps has now been confirmed by a positive RT-PCR from the b
Mumps has now been confirmed by a positive RT-PCR from the buccal… Mumps has now been confirmed by a positive RT-PCR from the buccal swab. The ER immediately reports this finding to the hospital’s infection prevention and control department and the local public health department as mumps is on the national notifiable infectious disease list.Public health disease surveillance is defined as the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data. Each U.S. state and territory have laws, statutes, or other regulations that require reporting of communicable or infectious diseases and have the authority to collect and monitor a database of disease case information in order to detect patterns, clusters, and outbreaks. The list of reportable diseases varies slightly from state to state, but the same criteria are used to define what constitutes a case of a given disease (see here for the Kentucky reportable disease form).Timely and accurate disease reporting allows public health nurses (PHNs) to monitor and respond to the changing health status of their community. It also helps ensure the appropriate allocation of resources to public health and community programs.The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System is a nationwide collaboration that enables all levels of public healthlocal, state, territorial, federal, and internationalto share data on notifiable diseases. This information helps public health officials to monitor the effect of these diseases and conditions, measure trends in disease occurrence, assess the effectiveness of prevention and control strategies, identify populations or geographic areas at high risk, allocate resources appropriately, and develop public health policies.Notifiable disease surveillance begins at the level of local, state, and territorial public health departments. The health departments work with health care providers, laboratories, hospitals, and other partners to obtain the information needed to monitor, control, and prevent these conditions in their communities. Local health departments collaborate with the state health department, which in turn collaborates with the CDC to share information at all levels.Provisional data on the reported occurrence of national notifiable infectious diseases and conditions are published weekly, except for data about tuberculosis, which is published quarterly. These data are published annually to represent the official and archival count of cases for each disease and condition. Incidence data are presented in the CDC’s morbidity and mortality weekly report.sAccording to the reportable disease form, what is the correct time frame for reporting mumps to the local health department?a. Report immediatelyb. Report within 24 hoursc. Report within one business dayd. Report within five business days Scenario Continues 4The situation is being closely monitored by the hospital’s Infection Prevention nurse and the Employee Health nurse since HCWs are at risk of contracting and transmitting disease to patients and staff. Mumps transmission in health care settings has been documented in previous outbreaks, involving hospitals and long-term care facilities housing adolescents and adults.Marc, the Employee Health nurse, reviews information on the MMR vaccine. Live attenuated mumps virus vaccine is incorporated into combined MMR vaccine. Two doses of MMR vaccine are recommended routinely in children for prevention of mumps with the first dose at 12-15 months of age and the second dose at 4-6 years of age. Two doses of MMR vaccine are also recommended for prevention of mumps in adults at high risk, including international travelers, college and other post high school students, and health care personnel born during or after 1957 (the majority of people born before 1957 are likely to have been infected naturally and, therefore, are presumed to be protected against measles, mumps, and rubella).All other adults born during or after 1957 without other evidence of mumps immunity should be vaccinated with one dose of MMR vaccine. The CDC has a recommended immunization schedule by age.MMR vaccine prevents the majority of cases of mumps and associated complications. Two doses of the vaccine are 88 percent (range: 66-95)effective at protecting against mumps; one dose is 78 percent (range: 49-92) effective.The presumptive evidence of immunity criteria for health care personnel differs slightly from the criteria used in community settings. The following criteria are used to assess presumptive evidence of immunity among health care personnel.? Written documentation of vaccination with two doses of live mumps or MMR vaccine administered at least 28 days apart? Laboratory evidence of immunity? Laboratory confirmation of disease? Birth before 1957The MMR vaccine is contraindicated for anyone who is severely immunocompromised and those with a history of a severe allergic reaction to the vaccine or any of its components. The MMR vaccine should not be administered to anyone who is pregnant, and pregnancy should be avoided for 30 days after receiving the vaccination.Marc and Jessica, University Hospital’s infection prevention nurse, collaborate to investigate whether health care personnel may have had unprotected exposure to mumps. Unprotected exposures are defined as being within 3 feet of a patient with a diagnosis of mumps without the use of proper personal protective equipment. They review patient medical records andall staff who had contact with the patient before he was placed on isolation. They also review employee medical records for assessment of immunity status. CDC recommends vaccination for employees without evidence of immunity and exclusion of health care personnel with active mumps illness, as well as health care personnel who do not have presumptive evidence of immunity who are exposed to persons with mumps.University Hospital has a comprehensive vaccination policy for all employees. The Employee Health department reviews vaccination and immunity status at the time of hire and annually. All employees with unprotected exposure to the patient with mumps show appropriate evidence of immunity. Health care personnel with evidence of immunity do not need to be excluded from work following an unprotected exposure. However, two doses of MMR vaccine do not provide 100 percent protection from mumps and some vaccinated personnel may remain at risk for mumps. Employee Health and the Infection Prevention and Control departments provide education to all ER personnel about symptoms of mumps, including nonspecific presentations. Employees are instructed to notify the Employee Health department immediately if they develop these symptoms.:A PHN provides influenza immunizations to students at an elementary school. Which of the following conditions results from having been vaccinated?a. Natural immunityb. Artificial immunityc. Cellular immunityd. Humoral immunity Health Science Science Nursing UNRS 384
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