FUNCTIONS OF THE SPINAL CORD… FUNCTIONS OF THE SPINAL CORD ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ PROTECTION OF THE SPINAL CORD The spinal cord is protected by:             __________________________________________________________            __________________________________________________________            __________________________________________________________       The _________________________________ are composed of three layers:  ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________           ANATOMY OF THE SPINAL CORD The spinal cord begins as an extension of the medulla oblongata at the Level of the _____________________________________ andTerminates at the level of ____________________.      SENSORY AND MOTOR PROCESSING The internal anatomy of the spinal cord allows for _____________________________ and ____________________________________ information to be processes in an organized way.    SPINAL NERVES Spinal nerves connect the _______________________ to ______________________________, _______________________________ and _______________________________ and are part of the _______________________________________________________________________. _________________ pairs of spinal nerves. ____________________________ and __________________________ roots attach a spinal nerve to a segment of the spinal cord.   Shortly after passing through the _______________________________________________ a spinal nerve divides into several branches known as __________________________. ___________________________________________ – certain segments of the skin are supplied by spinal nerves that carry somatic sensory nerve impulses to the brain.   PLEXUS ____________________________________ – supplies the skin and muscles of the head, neck, superior portion of the shoulders, chest and diaphragm.    __________________________________________ – provides almost the entire nerve supply to the shoulders and upper limbs.         ___________________________________  ____________________________________    SPINAL CORD PHYSIOLOGY In order to maintain __________________________________, the spinal cord must propagate nerve impulses and integrate information. How does information travel in the spinal cord?____________________________________________ conduct nerve impulses to and from the ______________________________.____________________________________________ receives and integrates incoming and outgoing information to perform ___________________________.  REFLEXES AND REFLEX ARCS A ______________________________ is a fast, involuntary, unplanned response to a particular stimulus. Reflexes help to maintain _______________________________________The gray matter of the spinal cord serves as the integrating center for ___________________________________________.           General Components of a Reflex Arc Vocabulary Terms Ipsilateral:Contralateral:Monosynaptic:Polysynaptic:Reciprocal Innervation:              Stretch Reflex: causes contraction of a muscle that has been stretched Tendon Reflex: causes relaxation of the muscle attached to the stimulated tendon Flexor (Withdrawal) Reflex: causes withdrawal of a limb to avoid injury or pain Cross-Extensor Reflex: maintains balance during a withdrawal reflex DISORDERS____________________________________ – monoplegia, paraplegia, hemiplegia, quadriplegia Damage that results from traumatic injuries depends on: _________________________________________________________________ OR_________________________________________________________________ Spinal cord compressionDegenerative diseasesShinglesPoliomyelitisHealth Science Science Nursing BIO 252

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