Answer & Explanation:Please read the attached article and provide a 3 page paper on your impression of the issues in the article. Please provide a reference page not included in the 3 pages.
Unformatted Attachment Preview
Sexual Health / STDs
Pregnancy / Obstetrics
Men conceived through IVF may inherit father’s fertility problems
Written by Honor Whiteman
Published: Thursday 6 October 2016
en conceived through intracytoplasmic sperm injection a form of fertility treatment may have poorer
sperm quantity and quality than those conceived naturally. This is the conclusion of the first ever analysis of
young men who were conceived through the procedure in the early 1990s.
Study coauthor Prof. André Van Steirteghemat
and colleagues from the Centre for Reproductive
Medicine at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) in
Belgium publish their findings in the journal
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a type of
assisted reproductive technology. Forming a part
of in vitro fertilization (IVF), It involves collecting
sperm from the father and injecting it directly into
the inner part of the mother’s egg, in order to
induce normal fertilization. The fertilized egg is
Researchers suggest men conceived through ICSI may
inherit their father’s fertility problems.
then placed in the mother’s womb.
ICSI is primarily used to treat male infertility that is, men who have a low sperm count or abnormal sperm
function. The technique allows doctors to select the best quality sperm, and injecting it directly into the egg
increases the chances of fertilization.
The technique was pioneered more than 20 years ago by Prof. Van Steirteghemat and team. On January
14, 1992, the first baby was born through ICSI.
Since many cases of male infertility are caused by genetic defects, Prof. Van Steirteghemat and colleagues
always speculated that men conceived through ICSI might inherit such defects from their fathers.
Now, speculation may have moved closer to fact, after an analysis of 54 men born through ICSI between
19921996 a time when the procedure was solely used for male infertility suggests an association
between the procedure and poor sperm quantity and quality.
Reduction in sperm count, concentration for ICSIconceived
The 54 men included in the study aged 1822 were identified through the UZ Brussel hospital database,
and they were matched with a group of control men who had been conceived naturally.
Of the men who were conceived through ICSI, 50 of them had fathers who had malefactor infertility (two
cases of combined male and female infertility, 48 cases of male infertility only). For parents of the remaining
four men, the reason for their infertility was unknown.
All men were asked to provide semen samples, which were assessed for sperm quantity and quality. Blood
samples were also collected for analysis, and other health checks were conducted.
The analysis revealed that men conceived through ICSI had almost half the total sperm
concentration as men conceived naturally, and they showed a twofold reduction in total sperm count
(semen volume multiplied by semen concentration) and total motile sperm count (the number of
sperm that can reach the egg).
Furthermore, men conceived through ICSI were found to be three times more likely to have a sperm
concentration below 15 million per milliliter and four times more likely to have a total sperm count below 39
million per milliliter.
For reference, the World Health Organization (WHO) consider a normal sperm concentration to be 15 million
per milliliter or higher.
The team’s findings remained even after accounting for a number of factors that might have impacted semen
quality, including age, body mass index (BMI), and genital malformations.
Findings suggest ‘a degree of subfertility has been passed on’
Overall, Prof. Van Steirteghemat and colleagues say their results suggest men conceived through ICSI may
have poorer sperm quality and quantity, increasing their likelihood of fertility problems.
“These findings are not unexpected,” notes Prof. Van Steirteghemat. “Before ICSI was carried out,
prospective parents were informed that it may well be that their sons may have impaired sperm and semen
like their fathers. For all the parents, this information was not a reason to abstain from ICSI because, as they
said: ‘if this happens ICSI can then also be a solution for our sons.'”
“These first results from the oldest group of ICSIconceived adults worldwide indicate that a
degree of ‘subfertility’ has, indeed, been passed on to sons of fathers who underwent ICSI
because of impaired semen characteristics.”
Prof. André Van Steirteghemat
However, there is no indication that specific semen characteristics can be passed from fathers to sons
through ICSI; in the study, the low sperm concentration and total motile sperm counts among ICSI
conceived men did not correlate with those of their fathers.
“The study shows that semen characteristics of ICSI fathers do not predict semen values in their sons. It is
well established that genetic factors play a role in male infertility, but many other factors may also interfere.
Furthermore, correlation is not the same thing as causation,” says Prof. Van Steirteghemat.
Offspring conceived through fertility treatment should be
The researchers stress that their results cannot be generalized to all men conceived through ICSI, as the
way the technique is used has changed over the years; nowadays, it is used in most IVF procedures, even
when there is no evidence that a couple’s infertility is due to the man’s poor semen characteristics.
Still, Prof. Van Steirteghemat says the findings emphasize the need for research that monitors the fertility
and overall health of offspring conceived using assisted reproduction techniques.
“For instance, paired analysis of samples from fathers and sons should be carried out, and we need to look
at larger numbers of offspring,” he adds.
“This remains a challenging project for the VUB. However, health authorities and funding agencies should
provide the means to answer questions concerning the effects of genetics, mode of conception, fetal growth
patterns, and birth weights on the fertility of ICSI men.”
Learn how alcohol may influence female fertility.
Written by Honor Whiteman
Semen quality of young adult ICSI offspring: the first results, André Van Steirteghemat et al., Human Reproduction,
doi: 10.1093/humrep/dew245, published online 5 October 2016, abstract.
Oxford University Press news release, accessed 6 October 2016 via AlphaGalileo.
Visit our Fertility category page for the latest news on this subject, or sign up to our newsletter to receive the latest
updates on Fertility.
Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:
Whiteman, Honor. “Men conceived through IVF may inherit father’s fertility problems.” Medical News Today.
MediLexicon, Intl., 6 Oct. 2016. Web.
10 Oct. 2016.
Whiteman, H. (2016, October 6). “Men conceived through IVF may inherit father’s fertility problems.” Medical News
Today. Retrieved from
Please note: If no author information is provided, the source is cited instead.
This page was printed from: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/313319.php
Visit www.medicalnewstoday.com for medical news and health news headlines posted throughout the day, every day.
© 20042016 All rights reserved. MNT is the registered trade mark of MediLexicon International Limited.
Purchase answer to see full