Answer & Explanation:hey, I have some more references. what I have are references that textbooks, but I need them to be peer review journal articles. Many journal articles can be reused if possible. There are 40 text book references.These peer review journal articles needs to be between 2013-2017.See attached only the blue highlighted sections… ignore the other colours..what highlighted in blue to be replace with a citation and bibiliogaphy for all the citation you replace in my document that I send younote:Just to recap. only the citation in blue need to be updated to peer review journal articles between 2013-2017. No textbooks..
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Role of the Researcher
In a quantitative study, the role of the researcher may include (a) gather data, (b) analyze
and interpret the data, and (c) present the study results (Eide & Showalter, 2012; Marshall &
Rossman, 2013). For the current study, data collection will occur using a survey; participants
will receive a paper survey during the process of clearance upon entering the BVI. Because I
will not have direct access to the participants as they enter the BVI, a BVI government official
(immigration officer) will distribute the survey at the time of each visitor’s arrival, reducing any
potential bias towards the study (Moustakas, 1994). Participants will complete a paper-andpencil paper survey, anywhere convenient to them, because the likelihood that Internet service
may not be available (McPeake, Bateson, & O’Neill, 2014).
Working in various sectors of the tourism industry before 2015, I read documents where
authors suggested some tourists may not be satisfied with the BVI tourism product. Numerous
external factors in the BVI contribute to tourists’ experience, which includes sea and land-based
activities. As a resident of the BVI, either a professional or personal relationship or interaction
with any of the participants of the study will not be permitted.
The data collected will be trustworthy and will adhere to the protocols outlined in the
Belmont Report (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1979). In accordance with the
Belmont Report (1979) guidelines, participants will have the opportunity to decide whether or
not to participate in the study and receive the respect they deserve (U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services, 1979). Participation will be strictly voluntary, ensuring all individuals
fully understand they can outright refuse to participate or withdraw at any time. I will treat each
participant in an ethical manner as required by the human subject protocols identified in the
Belmont Report (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1979).
For ethical guidance compliance, I completed the online course entitled Protecting
Human Research Participant and earned certificate number 1613158 (see Appendix A). In
accordance with the Belmont Report, all persons participating in a study will experience respect,
beneficence, and justice (Manasanch et al., 2014). Individuals will have the right to refuse to
participate or withdraw from the study at any time (Manasanch et al., 2014). Beneficence is the
researcher’s ability to maximize benefits and reduce risks (Annoni, Sanchani, & Nardini, 2013;
Quin, 2015). The researcher must not cause any harm to the participants before, during, or after
the study. Furthermore, I will be careful to ensure the distribution of surveys among the
participants will occur in a just and fair manner. (Wester, 2011).
To participate in the study, participants must meet specific eligibility criteria. The
participants must be non-citizens or non-resident visitors of the BVI entering at any port of entry
into the BVI. Only individuals 18 or older can participate in the study as a measure of protection
to the participants. The participants must be tourists departing the BVI during the period of
October 2016 to December 2016. Having visual aid will help in encouraging visitors to
participate (XXX, XXX, XXX). To gain access to the participants, all monitors located at all
ports of entry will display several advertisements informing the visitors about the survey. The
advertisements will include a description of the survey purpose, the benefits of participating, the
eligibility criteria, the directions for survey completion and return, and directions for obtaining a
survey. The advertisement will also include a statement that all participants must read the
implied consent form prior to completing the survey (See Appendix B). Because direct access to
the participants may be limited, a BVI government official (immigration officer) will provide
eligible individuals with a paper survey, which will include written instructions guiding
participants how to complete the survey and where to return upon completion at the end of their
visit. Participants may misplace their survey, therefore, alternate avenues where visitors can
collect a survey (XXX, XXX, XXX).
In the event of any misplaced surveys, participants will
also have the opportunity to obtain a survey from either ferry terminals or airport departure
lounges. Participants will have the option to withdraw from the study at any time, either by not
completing or by not turning the survey into a lock box at any port of departure.
The method for the proposed study is quantitative. The quantitative research method is
the appropriate method for studies when researchers gather numeric data to examine the
relationship between or among variables when answering the research question(s) (Hargreaves
Heap, Verschoor, & Zizzo, 2012; Marshall & Rossman, 2013; Rozin, Hormes, Faith, &
Wansink, 2012) or examine how one or more variables affect or influence other variables
(Bernard, 2013; Ott, Longnecker, & Ott, 2001; Punch, 2014). Further, researchers use the
quantitative method to test null hypotheses using parametric and non-parametric statistical tests
(Rovai et al., 2013; Schneider, 2015; Zoë, & Hoe, 2013). Quantitative researchers use statistical
procedures to evaluate relationships among the various distinct variables in the study (Salehi &
Golafshani, 2013). Quantitative researchers also collect data from a sample, hoping to be able to
generalize the results to a larger population (Cokley & Awad, 2013; Hitchcock & Newman,
2013). The proposed study involves examining the relationships that exist between destination
image, push and pull motives to travel, and tourist satisfaction in the BVI. Furthermore, within
quantitative research, researchers statistically analyze numerical data (Turner, Balmer, &
Coverdale, 2013; Venkatesh, Brown, & Bala 2013). Therefore, by using a quantitative method,
the researcher will test whether a statistical relationship exists between destination image, push
and pull motives to travel, and BVI tourist satisfaction.
This study will involve collecting numeric data using Likert-type items to examine the
relationship (if any) between study variables. A quantitative methodology is selected for this
study, as the focus is on identifying any potential correlational relationship among variables and
testing the null hypotheses (Rovai et al., 2013; Schneider, 2015; Zoë, & Hoe, 2013). For this
quantitative research, a deductive method is essential; therefore, a qualitative or mixed method
would not be appropriate (Punch, 2013; Venkatesh et al., Zandvanian & Daryapoor, 2013).
The design of the proposed study is correlational. The correlational design is an
appropriate design when the researcher is seeking to examine a non-causal relationship between
or among variables (Bleske-Rechek, Morrison, & Heidtke, 2014; Croker, 2012; Green &
Salkind, 2014). The study objective is to examine whether a non-causal relationship exists
among two independent variables (push and pull motive to travel and destination image) and one
dependent variable (tourist satisfaction). The researcher cannot manipulate the independent
variables, nor randomly assign participants to levels of the independent variable, supporting the
requirements when conducting an experimental design (Beret, 2011; Bryman, 2012; Gay et al.,
2012; Herzinger & Campbell, 2007). In this study, destination image, as well as the push and
pull motive to travel cannot be manipulated, and people cannot be randomly assigned to each:
therefore, the researcher cannot examine results using an experimental design (Bryman & Bell,
2015; Green & Salkind, 2014). The comparative design is not an appropriate design, because the
objective is not to make comparisons between variables (Atchley, Wingenbach, & Akers, 2013;
Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2014; Yu-Jia, 2012).
Population and Sampling
The target population for this study includes BVI tourists for the period of October 2016
to December 2016. The estimated population of tourists for this time period is 152,190
(development Planning Unit, 2015), which includes visitors from places such as the United
States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Sweden, Spain,
Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Organization of Eastern Caribbean States countries, the French
West Indies, and the Netherland Antilles (Development Planning Unit, 2015). The population
includes non-citizens or non-resident visitors entering at any of the 10 ports of entry in the BVI.
Individuals access the 10 ports of entry from Tortola (which has four air and sea ports), Virgin
Gorda (which has three air and sea ports), Anegada (which has two air and sea ports), and Jost
Van Dyke (which has one sea port). .
I will use a nonprobability convenience sampling technique to identify participants for
the study, as opposed to a probability sampling method, using random selection (Baker et al.,
2013; Bryman, & Bell, 2015; Gluth, Rieskamp, & Büchel, 2012). Using a nonprobability
sampling method, researchers unsystematically select participants; therefore, because not all
members of the population are guaranteed to have an equal chance of inclusion in the sample
(Baker et al., 2013; Bryman, & Bell, 2015; Skowronek & Duerr, 2009).
The most common nonprobability sampling techniques are purposive and convenience
sampling (Baker et al., 2013; Bryman, & Bell, 2015; Guest, Bunce, & Johnson, 2006).
Convenience sampling refers to the availability of potential participants or on the convenience of
the researcher, which may not represent the target population (Baker et al., 2013; Guest et al.,
2006; Wallace, Clark, & White, 2012). Convenience sampling allows a researcher to make
generalizations based on the sample studied; hence, one drawback is the internal bias by the
researcher (Agyemang, Nyanyofio, & Gyamfi, 2014; Bryman &Bell, 2015; Campos et al., 2011).
Convenience sampling is the most used sampling techniques because it is fast and inexpensive,
and the participants are more readily available (Bornstein, Jager, & Putnick, 2013; Bryman, &
Bell, 2015; Surnari, 2013). In contrast, random sampling is relatively simple, but very costly,
with results that are more generalizable (Asendorpf et al., 2013; Barr, Levy, Scheepers, & Tily,
2013; Janssen, 2013).
The sample size should be large enough to satisfy the analysis used (Button et al., 2013;
Creswell, 2009). A researcher must choose a population capable of providing a sample size
adequate for generating sufficient data (Denscombe, 2014; Muskat, Blackman, & Muskat, 2012;
Stokes, Davis, & Koch, 2012). Having a robust sample size is imperative for a researcher to
interpret the study results accurately (Button et al., 2013; Denscombe, 2014; Meckstroth, 2012).
To determine the needed sample size, I used a sample size calculator and conducted a
power analysis. The sample size calculator is G* Power, G*Power is a statistical software
package researchers use to conduct an apriori sample size analysis (Faul, Erdfelder, Buchner, &
Lang, 2009). A power analysis, using G*Power version 3.1.9 software, was conducted to
determine the appropriate sample size for the study. An apriori power analysis, assuming a
medium effect size (f = .15), a = .05, indicated a minimum sample size of 135 participants is
required to achieve a power of .80. Increasing the sample size to 236 will increase power to .99.
Therefore, the researcher will seek between 135 and 236 participants for the study. Using a
medium effect size (f = .15) and a = .05 is the appropriate for this proposed study as displayed in
Figure 1. Power as a function of a sample
The researcher’s sole responsibility is to protect participants and to ensure the research
results (Eide & Showalter, 2012). In this study, to comply with the Belmont Report ethical
guidelines, I will take specific steps to protect the rights and confidentiality of research
participants (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1979). The first step is to ensure
participants receive and read the information on the implied consent form prior to completing a
I will not have direct access to the participants therefore, to gain access to the participants
a BVI government official (immigration officer) will notify and confirm that all prospective
participants are 18 years or older and that participant read the implied consent form before
completing the survey. The survey will include written instructions reminding the participants of
when to complete the survey and where to return the completed survey at the end of their visit.
As participants stand in line waiting to be processed by an official at all ports of entry for
admittance, visitors will be able to view several advertisements about the survey displayed on
monitors. The advertisements will establish ethical assurances by explaining rights of study
participants and protecting the participants’ rights to privacy, ensuring confidentiality, and
maintaining honesty (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1979; Xie et al., 2012).
A BVI government staff (immigration officer) will notify all prospective participants that
to participate, they must be over the age of 18 and must be identified as a non-citizen or nonresident visitor. The implied consent letter indicates the measures I will follow when conducting
my research (see Appendix B). In the case of a misplaced survey, participants will also have the
opportunity to receive an additional survey in the departure lounge either at ferry terminals or at
Participants will have the option to withdraw from the study at any time, either by not
completing the survey, and or by not turning the survey in to the appropriate entity. To avoid
coercion, there will be no incentives associated with participating in this study. I choose not to
include incentives to ensure participants’ decision to participate in the study is not altered by
financial gain (Fein & Kulik, 2011).
To help protect the rights of participants, data will be stored for 5 years on a secure
computer. The data collected will be password protected and only accessible to the researcher.
After 5 years, the data will be electronically erased from the computer. In addition, I will keep
the completed surveys and any printed information will be locked away and destroyed by secure
shredding after 5 years (Cronin-Gilmore, 2012).
No existing instrument exists to gather data on all the variables for the study. The
variables in the study are not unobservable psychological constructs, and using an existing
instrument is typically most appropriate when measuring such constructs (Slaney & Racine,
2013). Instead, I will create a self-developed survey, with individual survey items to measure the
study variables. Although thought to be more challenging and labor intensive to develop, there
are certain advantages that come with developing a unique, purpose-specific survey. For
example, a self-developed survey ensures the inclusion of the variables and concepts a researcher
must measure based on a detailed review of the literature (XXX, XXX, XXX). ).
Opting for a
self-developed survey allows a researcher to prepare each question specific to the research
questions of the study (XXX, XXX, XXX). ). The instrument for the proposed study is a paper
survey (see Appendix C). In addition, a self-developed instrument can facilitate the ability to
systematically address issues of validity and reliability explained under the Data Collection
section. Table 2 includes a summary of the variables in the survey, listed in the order they will
appear in the survey instrument.
Demographic (purpose of visit)
Demographic (islands to be visited)
Demographic variable (BVI arrival method)
Demographic variable (nationality)
Demographic (has been to the BVI before)
Demographic (household income)
Destination image (predictor variable)
Push and pull motives to travel (predictor
Tourist satisfaction (criterion variable)
Demographic Survey Items
Structuring the format of the survey is crucial to the success of the study. The first section
of the survey instrument includes demographic questions. The demographic information
collected is gender, purpose of visit, islands to be visited, BVI arrival method, nationality, has
been to the BVI before, household income. I will measure each demographic variable using a
single question at an ordinal level.
The second section of the survey instrument includes questions to gather the data on the
study’s independent and dependent variables (destination image, push and pull motives to travel,
and tourist satisfaction). I will measure the first independent variable, destination image, using a
single question at the nominal level of measurement. Assaker and Hallak (2013) and Stylidis,
Belhassen, and Shani (2014) studied destination image and measured this variable using a single
item because of the various dimensions of destination image. The intent is to use a modified
version of the single item Assaker and Hallak used to measure destination image. Assaker and
Hallak’s single item was, “How would you describe the image that you have of that destination
before the experience”? Participants provided answers using a 5-point Likert-type scale. The
scale ranged from 1 (not all satisfied) to 5 (extremely satisfied), with high scores indicating
exceptional levels of destination image and lower scores indicating unsatisfactory levels of
destination image. .Similar to previous studies, the emphasis will be on an overall evaluation of
destination image, using the scale above, rather than analyzing the individual components of the
destination image construct (Assaker & Hallak, 2013; Papadimitriou, Apostolopoulou, &
Kaplanidou, 2015; Prayag et al., 2015; Zhang et al. 2014).
Push and Pull Motives to Travel
The second section of the survey instrument also includes questions, at the nominal level
of measurement, to gather the data on study’s independent construct of push and pull motives to
travel. Kim, Oh, and Jogaratnam (2006) and Mohammad and Som’s (2010), studied push and
pull motives to travel and measure the variable using multiple items. The intent is to use a
modified version of Kim, Oh, and Jogaratnam and Mohammad and Som used to measure push
and pull motive to travel to fit the needs of the BVI. Push and pull motives consists of thirteen
predictor variables: push knowledge, push sightseeing variety, push adventure, push relax, push
lifestyles, push family, pull event and activities, pull sightseeing variety, pull easy access and
affordability, pull history and culture, pull variety seeking, pull adventure, and pull natural
resources. Participants will provide answers using a 5-point Likert-type scale. The scale ranges
from 1 (not at all satisfied) to 5 (extremely satisfied), with high scores indicating exceptional
levels of push and pull motives to travel and lower scores indicating unsatisfactory levels of push
and pull motives to travel.
I will measure the dependent variable, tourist satisfaction, as a continuous variable at the
ordinal level of measurement. Assaker and Hallak (2013) studied tourist satisfaction and
measured this variable using a single item to understand the visitor overall satisfaction with the
visitor visit to a destination. Assaker and Hallak’s satisfaction scale contained one item intended
to measure the overall tourist satisfaction with visitors experience to the BVI. This single item
from Assaker and Hallak is, “How would yo …
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