Answer & Explanation:I need someone who learned this course to help me complete this paper, Thanks! If you don’t know the model, please don’t bid this task!FormatI. The Organizational Contexta. Using the PESTLE model, what is the context in which the organization finds itself?b. What are the internal issues the organization is dealing with?c. NOTE: Select the diagnostic model you will use (e.g., McKinsey 7-S, Weisbord Six-Box, or any other approved by me) and using the model, explain the internal issues as they would fit the model. For example, one of the “Ss” for the McKinsey 7-S model is “structure.” If the internal issue is that the wrong organizational structure exists due to a change in organizational strategy, then note it that way.II. The Management Problem (Use the diagnostic model you selected)Think of this like a doctor diagnosing illness. Or think of it as a Gap Analysis.a. What symptoms do you observe that suggest something is wrong (e.g., too many errors on forms, turnover is too high, etc.) versus what you should be seeing.b. What could be causing each symptom. Identify the causes (and why they are the causes). Find research that suggests what can cause the symptoms, what happens if not addressed (e.g., Turnover can come from low job satisfaction, and turnover costs an organization $X a year). This can be from academic journals, and can also come from periodicals such as trade publications,BusinessWeek(or similar periodicals), newspapers (especiallyThe Wall Street Journal). The lit review focuses on the management question/problem and provides a framework for why solutions are important to resolve it, and why ignoring it is not an option.c. What needs to change (*note—there may be many issues, but focus on the ones you are most familiar with, or view as most important). By this, given the symptoms, given the causes, what exactly would you change to “fix” the causes (not the symptoms—the causes).  i. These are your alternative recommendations. One option is always to do nothing—to leave things as they are. As you develop alternative recommendations, one certain ones will be feasible to do (maybe they are affordable, maybe they are necessary because time is short and they are easier to implement and provide a quicker solution—or maybe because they have the highest long term payoff). As the change leader you need to develop recommendations or solutions. Again, these are the “fixes” for your problem causes. The selected recommendation/solutions will be what you implement.III. The Change Initiative (Use the Kotter 8-Step model; however, you can select another implementation model with my approval. As you work through the implementation, use the Armenakis-Harris-Feild model to show what the change leader (you) would do to create readiness for the change (see item III-v below).a. What is the plan for implementing the change(s) you believe is/are needed? What exactly are you going to implement? Be specific. Provide a step-by-step plan.  Specifically note:  i. What will your change be (drawn from the developed recommendations/solutions)?  ii. What major challenges will you/the organization face in implementing the proposed changes?  iii. Who are the stakeholders in this case who can have an impact, for good or ill on the change initiative? What influence can they wield?  iv. What types of resistance are you/the organization likely to encounter? How will you address each type of resistance?  v. Use the Armenakis, Harris, Feild Institutionalizing Change Model. NOTE: Remember, this model is designed to look at change from the change recipient’s perspective. Thus:1. Consider the five elements of readiness (discrepancy, appropriateness, principal support, efficacy, and valence). This means you are explaining to the organizational members why the change is needed, why the proposed change is appropriate (and, of course, what it is), who is supporting the change (and if none initially, you need to build a coalition—thus, one of the changes may be to get a guiding coalition together), the support the organization will provide the members (this is the efficacy element), and what the “pay-off” will be for both the organization and the members (long term and short term—and note—if it involves pay cuts or downsizing there may be pain for some and no positive pay-off).b. A literature review of why this change initiative is the best alternative (here is where many, if not all of your references may show up).IV. Evaluationa. What are the specific outcomes you seek? For example, a reduction in Turnover (The outcomes actually will be that the symptoms you recorded cease to be. Don’t include outcomes like “a ‘motivated’ workforce’ or ‘better community relations.’ If you can’t quantify it, don’t say it.b. What will you do to evaluate the results of the implementation? For example, use of surveys, quality control measures, recorded cost savings, etc.V. Conclusionsa. Final thoughts, etc.VI. Reference page:a. NOTE: You are required to use a minimum offive peer-reviewed journalarticles/papers in support of your analysis and plan development. Beyond that you can draw from any source (except WIKIPEDIA) to support your analysis and plan.b. NOTE: You should be using outside sources to bolster your case for change, support for the type of change, etc. so you should (a) be citing these sources within the body of the change analysis and plan and (b) including a reference page at the end. NOTE: Both citations and references should be done using APA guidelines. Just a hint–don’t list the reference page with a “VI” or whatever. It should be on a separate page. Center the word “References” and then include your references below that. See the following resources for APA style guidelines:  i. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(6th ed.).  (2009). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.  ii. OWL Purdue Writing Center, click on APA Guide athttps://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/
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look the instruction below:
Summary
· The Change Analysis and Plan (CAP) or Project is designed to achieve two
objectives:
o Student demonstrates the ability to apply course models and content to an
actual change situation or organizational problem.
o By using the student’s own organization for the CAP, the student can
demonstrate to his or her organization management a solution to a real problem.
· Using the CAP Guideline (see assessment section in Blackboard) the student
will apply the format in the guideline to his or her own organization to:
o Describe the organization’s context;
o Describe the management problem, using either the McKinsey 7-S, Weisbord
Six-Box, or other approved (by me) diagnostic model.
o Upon completion of the diagnosis, the student will develop a change initiative
(using the Kotter 8-step model or another model approved by me and
implementing using the AHF leadership model) and plan for implementation.
o This CAP will be prepared using APA formatting, and must contain at least five
external references using appropriate peer-reviewed journal articles (NOT
WIKIPEDIA; NOT something just Googled). Student may use other articles for
support from any source (except WIKIPEDIA)
o Student will use 12-pt font size of Times New Roman, Arial, or Calibri font.
Format
I. The Organizational Context
a. Using the PESTLE model, what is the context in which the organization
finds itself?
b. What are the internal issues the organization is dealing with?
c. NOTE: Select the diagnostic model you will use (e.g., McKinsey 7-S,
Weisbord Six-Box, or any other approved by me) and using the model,
explain the internal issues as they would fit the model. For example, one of
the “Ss” for the McKinsey 7-S model is “structure.” If the internal issue is
that the wrong organizational structure exists due to a change in
organizational strategy, then note it that way.
II. The Management Problem (Use the diagnostic model you selected)
Think of this like a doctor diagnosing illness. Or think of it as a Gap
Analysis.
a. What symptoms do you observe that suggest something is wrong (e.g.,
too many errors on forms, turnover is too high, etc.) versus what you
should be seeing.
b. What could be causing each symptom. Identify the causes (and why
they are the causes). Find research that suggests what can cause the
symptoms, what happens if not addressed (e.g., Turnover can come from
low job satisfaction, and turnover costs an organization $X a year). This
can be from academic journals, and can also come from periodicals such
as trade publications, BusinessWeek (or similar periodicals), newspapers
(especially The Wall Street Journal). The lit review focuses on the
management question/problem and provides a framework for why solutions
are important to resolve it, and why ignoring it is not an option.
c. What needs to change (*note—there may be many issues, but focus on
the ones you are most familiar with, or view as most important). By this,
given the symptoms, given the causes, what exactly would you change to
“fix” the causes (not the symptoms—the causes).
i. These are your alternative recommendations. One option is always to
do nothing—to leave things as they are. As you develop alternative
recommendations, one certain ones will be feasible to do (maybe they are
affordable, maybe they are necessary because time is short and they are
easier to implement and provide a quicker solution—or maybe because
they have the highest long term payoff). As the change leader you need to
develop recommendations or solutions. Again, these are the “fixes” for
your problem causes. The selected recommendation/solutions will be what
you implement.
III. The Change Initiative (Use the Kotter 8-Step model; however, you can
select another implementation model with my approval. As you work
through the implementation, use the Armenakis-Harris-Feild model to show
what the change leader (you) would do to create readiness for the change
(see item III-v below).
a. What is the plan for implementing the change(s) you believe is/are
needed? What exactly are you going to implement? Be specific. Provide a
step-by-step plan. Specifically note:
i. What will your change be (drawn from the developed
recommendations/solutions)?
ii. What major challenges will you/the organization face in implementing
the proposed changes?
iii. Who are the stakeholders in this case who can have an impact, for
good or ill on the change initiative? What influence can they wield?
iv. What types of resistance are you/the organization likely to encounter?
How will you address each type of resistance?
v. Use the Armenakis, Harris, Feild Institutionalizing Change Model.
NOTE: Remember, this model is designed to look at change from the
change recipient’s perspective. Thus:
1. Consider the five elements of readiness (discrepancy, appropriateness,
principal support, efficacy, and valence). This means you are explaining to
the organizational members why the change is needed, why the proposed
change is appropriate (and, of course, what it is), who is supporting the
change (and if none initially, you need to build a coalition—thus, one of the
changes may be to get a guiding coalition together), the support the
organization will provide the members (this is the efficacy element), and
what the “pay-off” will be for both the organization and the members (long
term and short term—and note—if it involves pay cuts or downsizing there
may be pain for some and no positive pay-off).
b. A literature review of why this change initiative is the best alternative
(here is where many, if not all of your references may show up).
IV. Evaluation
a. What are the specific outcomes you seek? For example, a reduction in
Turnover (The outcomes actually will be that the symptoms you recorded
cease to be. Don’t include outcomes like “a ‘motivated’ workforce’ or
‘better community relations.’ If you can’t quantify it, don’t say it.
b. What will you do to evaluate the results of the implementation? For
example, use of surveys, quality control measures, recorded cost savings,
etc.
V. Conclusions
a. Final thoughts, etc.
VI. Reference page:
a. NOTE: You are required to use a minimum of five peer-reviewed
journal articles/papers in support of your analysis and plan development.
Beyond that you can draw from any source (except WIKIPEDIA) to support
your analysis and plan.
b. NOTE: You should be using outside sources to bolster your case for
change, support for the type of change, etc. so you should (a) be citing
these sources within the body of the change analysis and plan and (b)
including a reference page at the end. NOTE: Both citations and references
should be done using APA guidelines. Just a hint–don’t list the reference
page with a “VI” or whatever. It should be on a separate page. Center the
word “References” and then include your references below that. See the
following resources for APA style guidelines:
i. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th
ed.). (2009). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
ii. OWL Purdue Writing Center, click on APA Guide
at https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/
Managing
Organizational
Change
A Multiple Perspectives Approach
Third Edition
Ian Palmer
Richard Dunford
David A. Buchanan
MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE: A MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES APPROACH, THIRD EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed
in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2009 and 2006. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any
means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network
or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOC/DOC 1 0 9 8 7 6
ISBN 978-0-07-353053-6
MHID 0-07-353053-0
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All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.
Cartoon page 101: Toothpaste For Dinner et al. (hereafter TFD/ND/MTTS) are copyright 2002–2013 Drew & Natalie Dee. TFD/ND/MTTS may not be
reproduced in print or broadcast media without explicit written permission from Drew & Natalie Dee. We do not permit any entity to run a “feed” or online
syndication of TFD/ND/MTTS, or to “scrape” the content. TFD/ND/MTTS or any derivatives of such, including text from the comics or redrawn/altered
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part on TFD/ND/MTTS or another website operated by Drew & Natalie Dee.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Palmer, Ian, 1957Managing organizational change : a multiple perspectives approach / Ian Palmer, Richard Dunford,
David A. Buchanan. — Third Edition.
   p. cm.
   Revised edition of Managing organizational change, 2009.
   Includes bibliographical references and index.
   ISBN 978-0-07-353053-6 (alk. paper)
   1. Organizational change. 2. Organizational change–Management. I. Dunford, Richard.
   II. Buchanan, David A. III. Title.
HD58.8.P347 2016
658.4’06–dc23
2015033668
The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the
authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.
mheducation.com/highered
DEDICATIONS
From Ian
To Dianne, Matthew, and Michelle
From Richard
To Jill, Nick, and Ally
From David
To Lesley with love—and thanks
This book is also dedicated to the memory of Gib Akin, our
co-author from 2005 to 2014.
Acknowledgements
A number of people have contributed to this edition, and we owe them all a debt of gratitude, including Jonathan Bamber, Lesley Buchanan, Daloni Carlile, Mimi Clarke, and
Alastair McLellan. In addition, we would like to thank our McGraw-Hill Education team,
including Michael Ablassmeir, Director, Laura Hurst Spell, Senior Product Developer; Jeni
McAtee, Evan Roberts, Karen Jozefowicz, Content Project Managers; Gunjan C
­ handola
(Lumina), Full-Service Content Project Manager; and DeAnna Dausener, Content Licensing Specialist. We would also like to thank the second edition reviewers for their helpful
feedback: Diane Bandow, Troy University; Cynthia Bean, University of South Florida–
St. Petersburg; Bradford R. Frazier, Pfeiffer University; Dominie Garcia, San Jose State
­University; Selina Griswold, University of Toledo; Mark Hannan, George Washington
University; Christopher S. Howard, Pfeiffer University; Jim Kerner, Athens State University; Catherine Marsh, North Park University; Patricia A. Matuszek, Troy University;
Ranjna Patel, Bethune Cookman University; Mary Sass, Western Washington University;
Dennis Self, Troy University; Patricia Scescke, National Louis University.
iv
Brief contents
Preface
ix
PART 1 Groundwork: Understanding and Diagnosing Change
1
Managing Change: Stories and Paradoxes 3
2
Images of Change Management 31
3
Why Change? Contemporary Pressures and Drivers 61
4
What to Change? A Diagnostic Approach 101
1
PART 2 Implementation: The Substance and Process of Change 137
5
What Changes—and What Doesn’t? 139
6
Vision and the Direction of Change 171
7
Change Communication Strategies 205
8
Resistance to Change 249
9
Organization Development and Sense-Making Approaches 279
10
Change Management, Processual, and Contingency Approaches 315
PART 3 Running Threads: Sustainability, and the
Effective Change Manager 353
11
Sustaining Change versus Initiative Decay 355
12
The Effective Change Manager: What Does It Take? 385
Name Index 423
Subject Index 433
v
Contents
Preface
ix
Part 1
Groundwork: Understanding and
Diagnosing Change 1
1 Managing Change: Stories and
Paradoxes 3
Learning objectives 3
Stories About Change: What Can We
Learn? 4
The Story of Beth Israel Deaconess
Medical Center 5
The Story of Sears Holdings 8
The Story of J. C. Penney 10
Tension and Paradox: The State of the Art 14
Assessing Depth of Change 18
What’s Coming Up: A Road Map 19
Change Diagnostic: The Beth Israel Story 21
Change Diagnostic: The Sears Holdings
Story 23
Change Diagnostic: The J. C. Penney Story 24
Exercise 1.1: Writing Your Own Story of
Change 26
Additional Reading 27
Roundup 27
References 28
2 Images of Change Management 31
Learning objectives 31
What’s in a Name: Change Agents, Managers,
or Leaders? 32
Images, Mental Models, Frames,
Perspectives 33
The Six-Images Framework 34
Six Images of Change Management 37
Using the Six-Images Framework 46
vi
Self-Assessment: What Is Your Image of
Managing Change? 49
Self-Assessment: Scoring 51
Exercise 2.1: Assessing Change Managers’
Images 52
Exercise 2.2: The Turnaround Story at
Leonard Cheshire 53
Additional Reading 55
Roundup 56
References 57
3 Why Change? Contemporary Pressures
and Drivers 61
Learning objectives 61
Environmental Pressures for Change 62
Why Do Organizations Not Change in
Response to Environmental Pressures? 79
Why Do Organizations Not Change after
Crises? 82
Internal Organizational Change Drivers 85
Exercise 3.1: Top Team Role Play 91
Exercise 3.2: Case Analysis: The Sunderland
City Story 91
Exercise 3.3: The Reputation Trap: Can You
Escape? 92
Additional Reading 93
Roundup 94
References 96
4 What to Change? A Diagnostic
Approach 101
Learning objectives 101
Organizational Models 102
Organization Strategy and Change 108
Diagnosing Readiness for Change 117
Built-to-Change 124
Exercise 4.1: The Capital One Financial
Story 125
Contents vii
Exercise 4.2: Scenario Planning 127
Exercise 4.3: Readiness for Change
Analysis 128
Additional Reading 130
Roundup 131
References 134
Exercise 6.3: The Role of Vision at Mentor
Graphics 197
Additional Reading 198
Roundup 199
References 201
Part 2
Implementation: The Substance and
Process of Change 137
5 What Changes—and What
Doesn’t? 139
Learning objectives 139
What Changes? 140
Innovation 146
Organizational Culture 150
Technology 155
Exercise 5.1: The Nampak Story 161
Exercise 5.2: Organizational Culture
Assessment 162
Exercise 5.3: How Will the Digital Revolution
Affect Your Organization? 163
Additional Reading 163
Roundup 164
References 166
6 Vision and the Direction
of Change 171
Learning objectives 171
Vision: Fundamental or Fad? 172
The Characteristics of Effective Visions
How Context Affects Vision 180
How Visions Are Developed 181
Why Visions Fail 187
Linking Vision to Change: Three
Debates 189
Exercise 6.1: Interviewing Change
Recipients 197
Exercise 6.2: Analyze Your Own
Organization’s Vision 197
174
7 Change Communication
Strategies 205
Learning objectives 205
The Change Communication Process 206
Gender, Power, and Emotion 211
Language Matters: The Power
of Conversation 215
Change Communication Strategies 222
Contingency Approaches to Change
Communication 228
Communication Channels and the Role
of Social Media 232
Exercise 7.1: Listen to Who’s Talking 238
Exercise 7.2: How Defensive Are You? 239
Exercise 7.3: Social Media at the
Museum 240
Additional Reading 241
Roundup 242
References 244
8 Resistance to Change 249
Learning objectives 249
WIIFM, WAMI, and the Dimensions
of Resistance 250
Benefits 251
Causes 253
Symptoms 260
Managers as Resisters 261
Managing Resistance 263
Exercise 8.1: Diagnosing and Acting 270
Exercise 8.2: Jack’s Dilemma 270
Exercise 8.3: Moneyball 271
Additional Reading 272
Roundup 272
References 274
viii Contents
9 Organization Development and
Sense-Making Approaches 279
Learning objectives 279
Alternative Approaches to Managing
Change 280
Organization Development (OD) 280
Appreciative Inquiry (AI) 291
Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS) 293
Dialogic Organizational Development 295
Sense-Making 298
Exercise 9.1: Reports from the Front Line 304
Exercise 9.2: Designing a Large-Scale Change
Intervention 304
Exercise 9.3: Making Sense of
Sense-Making 304
Exercise 9.4: Interpreting the Interpreter:
Change at Target 305
Exercise 9.5: Change at DuPont 306
Additional Reading 308
Roundup 308
References 310
10 Change Management, Processual, and
Contingency Approaches 315
Learning objectives 315
Alternative Approaches to Managing
Change 316
Why Change Fails 317
Change by Checklist 319
Stage Models of Change Management 325
Process Perspectives on Change 331
Contingency Approaches to Change
Management 335
Exercise 10.1: Develop Your Own Change
Model 341
Exercise 10.2: The British Airways Swipe
Card Debacle 342
Exercise 10.3: The Italian Job 344
Additional Reading 346
Roundup 346
References 349
Part 3
Running Threads: Sustainability, and
the Effective Change Manager 353
11 Sustaining Change versus
Initiative Decay 355
Learning objectives 355
Initiative Decay and Improvement
Evaporation 356
Praiseworthy and Blameworthy Failures 359
Actions to Sustain Change 362
Words of Warning 369
Exercise 11.1: A Balanced Set of
Measures 373
Exercise 11.2: Treating Initiative Decay 373
Exercise 11.3: The Challenger and Columbia
Shuttle Disasters 374
Additional Reading 379
Roundup 380
References 382
12 The Effective Change Manager:
What Does It Take? 385
Learning objectives 385
Change Managers: Who Are They? 386
Change Managers: What Kind of Role
Is This? 394
Change Management Competencies 397
Political Skill and the Change Manager 403
Developing Change Management
Expertise 410
Exercise 12.1: Networking—How Good
Are You? 412
Exercise 12.2: How Resilient Are You? 413
Exercise 12.3: How Political Is Your
Organization? 415
Additional Reading 416
Roundup 417
References 419
Name Index 423
Subject Index 433
Preface
Since the previous edition of this book published in 2009, the organizational world has
changed dramatically—the global financial crisis, fresh geopolitical tensions, environmental concerns, greater focus on corporate social responsibility, economic uncertainties,
emerging new markets, dramatic technological developments, demographic shifts, changing consumer tastes and expectations. Add to that mix the growing significance of social
media, where positive and critical views of organizations and their products and services
can be shared instantly and globally with large numbers of people.
From a management perspective, it feels as though the drivers for organizational change
are now more numerous, and that the pace of change has also increased; more pressure,
more change, faster change. While the pace of change may only appear to have q …
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