Answer & Explanation:Effective leadership is essential to successful democratic governance. Different leaders have different styles. Ghandi and Martin Luther King Jr. preached passive resistance, whereas Dwight Eisenhower commanded one of the greatest military forces ever assembled. Nelson Mandela preached forgiveness. All of these men shared a love of peace and accomplished great deeds. Strong leaders also may have a great impact on public policy formulation and implementation. Leaders may influence what policies are enacted and how they are implemented. Thus, leadership is a significant tool of democracy. As you approach this Discussion on leadership, think about leaders whom you admire and the great public policy successes they achieved. Reflect on the leadership styles they used to accomplish their goals, bearing in mind that there are many different ways to be an effective leader when it comes to influencing public policy.To prepare for this Discussion:Select two articles or book excerpts from this week’s Learning Resources. Take note of broad themes about leadership and public policy in the readings that you choose.Peruse periodicals, the Internet, and other resources for examples of leaders who you think have been effective in implementing public policy.Think about leadership styles that may be effective in implementing public policy.Recall monumental leadership figures, such as Gandhi or Martin Luther King Jr., and consider what made them effective leaders.Consider the influence political leaders might have in the public policy arena.Select two leaders, at least one of which from your country, who are or have been effective in implementing public policy and think about similarities and differences in terms of their effectiveness in implementing public policy.Consider the importance of leadership as a tool for implementing public policy.With these thoughts in mind:Write a brief description of each of the leaders you selected. Then, explain similarities and differences among them in terms of their effectiveness in implementing public policy. Finally, based on your comparison, analyze how various leadership styles enable the development and implementation of public policy.Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources while adhering strictly to APA style of reference.ReadingsNote:You are required to select and read two of the following articles or book excerpts (of your choice) to complete this week’s Discussion. Please review the Discussion area for more details.Blair, R. (2001). Managing urban growth: Can the policy tools approach improve effectiveness?Public Works Management and Policy,6(2), 102–113.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.Boin, A., & Christensen, T. (2008). The development of public institutions: Reconsidering the role of leadership.Administration and Society,40(3), 271–297.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.Sandfort, J., Selden, S. C., & Sowa, J. E. (2008). Do government tools influence organizational performance? Examining their implementation in early childhood education.The American Review of Public Administration,38(4), 412–438.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.Schneider, A., & Ingram, H. (1990). Behavioral assumptions of policy tools.Journal of Politics,52(2), 510–529.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.Haberman, F. W. (Ed). (1972). Martin Luther King Jr.: Biographical. InNobel lectures. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Retrieved June 2, 2014, fromhttp://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1964/king-bio.htmlThe Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies. (2003).Policy tools and government performance. Retrieved fromhttp://ccss.jhu.edu/publications-findings?did=242May, P. (n.d.).Social regulation workbook. Retrieved fromhttp://ccss.jhu.edu/publications-findings?did=61The White House. (n.d.a).Abraham Lincoln. Retrieved fromhttp://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/AbrahamLincoln/The White House. (n.d.b).Franklin D. Roosevelt. Retrieved fromhttp://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklindroosevelt/The White House. (n.d.c).George Washington. Retrieved http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgewashington/Document:Case Study: The Winds of Change (PDF)MediaLaureate Education (Producer). (2014g).Tools of democracy[Audio file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.In this media piece, a subject-matter expert discusses what leadership looks like in public policy and considers effective leadership principles and practices in public policy.Optional ResourcesPrewitt, K. (1965).Political socialization and leadership selection.The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,361(1), 96–105.The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science by Prewitt, K., in theANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 361(1). Copyright 1965 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals. Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications Inc. Journals via the Copyright Clearance CenterWiatr, J. J. (1988).Introduction: Political leadership from a comparative perspective.International Political Science Review, 9(2), 91–94.Introduction: Political leadership from a comparative perspective by Wiatr, J. J., in International Political Science Review, 9(2). Copyright 1988 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals. Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications Inc. Journals via the Copyright Clearance Center.Biography.com. (2007).Mary Harris Jones biography. Retrieved fromhttp://www.biography.com/people/mother-jones-9357488#awesm=~oD1ZtFBlw9BDRU
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