Answer & Explanation:Please perform
an analysis of the Case: Manchester United Soccer Club. At a minimum you must
address the questions raised at the end of the case. Question 1 requires you to
create a WBS, you are required to create it in a flowchart (organizational
chart) format not a list of deliverables (you can refer to content folder for
creating org charts in MS word). Ensure that your major deliverables,
sub-deliverables as well as work packages are well defined and created
As with any case
analysis, please ensure that your report contains appropriate analysis,
justification and rationale for any conclusions or recommendations that you
I will upload 2 files:1- Manchester CaseStudy: this file has the case and the questions that you are going to read and analyse.2- Ch04: this file has the content of the the chapter the the case about. You may use this file to help you doing the analysis. ***You have to cover all the questions in your answers. 3 pages or 3 and half might be enough, or maybe you can check how many pages it needs.*** Please Please do it correctly and thoughtfully. And let me know if you any questionsThank you
Unformatted Attachment Preview
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C H A P T E R
F O U R
Defining the Project
resources & costs
Defining the Project
Step 1: Defining the Project Scope
Step 2: Establishing Project Priorities
Step 3: Creating the Work Breakdown Structure
Step 4: Integrating the WBS with the Organization
Step 5: Coding the WBS for the Information System
Project Communication Plan
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Select a dream
Use your dream to set a goal
Create a plan
Enhance skills and abilities
Spend time wisely
Start! Get organized and go
. . . it is one of those acro-whatevers,
Project managers in charge of a single small project can plan and schedule the
project tasks without much formal planning and information. However, when the
project manager must manage several small projects or a large complex project, a
threshold is quickly reached in which the project manager can no longer cope with
This chapter describes a disciplined, structured method for selectively collecting information to use through all phases of the project life cycle, to meet the
needs of all stakeholders (e.g., customer, project manager), and to measure
performance against the strategic plan of the organization. The method suggested
is a selective outline of the project called the work breakdown structure. The early
stages of developing the outline serve to ensure that all tasks are identified and
that participants of the project have an understanding of what is to be done. Once
the outline and its detail are defined, an integrated information system can be
developed to schedule work and allocate budgets. This baseline information is
later used for control.
In addition, the chapter presents a variant of the work breakdown structure
called the process breakdown structure as well as responsibility matrices that are used
for smaller, less complex projects. With the work of the project defined through the
work breakdown structure, the chapter concludes with the process of creating a communication plan used to help coordinate project activities and follow progress.
The five generic steps described herein provide a structured approach for
collecting the project information necessary for developing a work breakdown
structure. These steps and the development of project networks found in the next
chapters all take place concurrently, and several iterations are typically required to
develop dates and budgets that can be used to manage the project. The old saying
“We can control only what we have planned” is true; therefore, defining the project
is the first step.
* Roger E. Allen and Stephen D. Allen, Winnie-the-Pooh on Success (New York: Penguin, 1997), p. 10.
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102 Chapter 4 Defining the Project
Step 1: Defining the Project Scope
Defining the project scope sets the stage for developing a project plan. Project
scope is a definition of the end result or mission of your project—a product or
service for your client/customer. The primary purpose is to define as clearly as
possible the deliverable(s) for the end user and to focus project plans. As fundamental and essential as scope definition appears, it is frequently overlooked by
project leaders of well-managed, large corporations.
Research clearly shows that a poorly defined scope or mission is the most frequently mentioned barrier to project success. In a study involving more than 1,400
project managers in the United States and Canada, Gobeli and Larson (1986)
found that approximately 50 percent of the planning problems relate to unclear
definition of scope and goals. This and other studies suggest a strong correlation
between project success and clear scope definition (cf., Ashley et al., 1987; Pinto
and Slevin, 1988; Standish Group, 2009). The scope document directs focus on the
project purpose throughout the life of the project for the customer and project
The scope should be developed under the direction of the project manager,
customer, and other significant stakeholders. The project manager is responsible
for seeing that there is agreement with the owner on project objectives, deliverables at each stage of the project, technical requirements, and so forth. For example, a deliverable in the early stage might be specifications; for the second stage,
three prototypes for production; for the third, a sufficient quantity to introduce to
market; and finally, marketing promotion and training.
Your project scope definition is a document that will be published and used by
the project owner and project participants for planning and measuring project
success. Scope describes what you expect to deliver to your customer when the
project is complete. Your project scope should define the results to be achieved in
specific, tangible, and measurable terms.
Employing a Project Scope Checklist
Clearly, project scope is the keystone interlocking all elements of a project plan.
To ensure that scope definition is complete, you may wish to use the following
Project Scope Checklist
Limits and exclusions
Reviews with customer
1. Project objective. The first step of project scope definition is to define the
overall objective to meet your customer’s need(s). For example, as a result of
extensive market research a computer software company decides to develop a
program that automatically translates verbal sentences in English to Russian.
The project should be completed within three years at a cost not to exceed
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Chapter 4 Defining the Project 103
$1.5 million. Another example is to design and produce a completely portable,
hazardous waste, thermal treatment system in 13 months at a cost not to exceed
$13 million. The project objective answers the questions of what, when, and
Deliverables. The next step is to define major deliverables—the expected, measurable outputs over the life of the project. For example, deliverables in the
early design phase of a project might be a list of specifications. In the second
phase deliverables could be software coding and a technical manual. The next
phase could be the prototype. The final phase could be final tests and approved
software. Note: Deliverables and requirements are often used interchangeably.
Milestones. A milestone is a significant event in a project that occurs at a point
in time. The milestone schedule shows only major segments of work; it represents first, rough-cut estimates of time, cost, and resources for the project.
The milestone schedule is built using the deliverables as a platform to identify
major segments of work and an end date—for example, testing complete and
finished by July 1 of the same year. Milestones should be natural, important
control points in the project. Milestones should be easy for all project participants to recognize.
Technical requirements. More frequently than not, a product or service will
have technical requirements to ensure proper performance. Technical requirements typically clarify either the deliverables or define the performance specifications. For example, a technical requirement for a personal computer might be
the ability to accept 120-volt alternating current or 240-volt direct current without any adapters or user switches. Another well-known example is the ability of
911 emergency systems to identify the caller’s phone number and location
of the phone. Examples from information systems projects include speed and
capacity of database systems and connectivity with alternative systems. For
understanding the importance of key requirements, see Snapshot from Practice:
Limits and exclusions. The limits of scope should be defined. Failure to do so
can lead to false expectations and to expending resources and time on the
wrong problem. Examples of limits are: local air transportation to and from
base camps will be outsourced; system maintenance and repair will be done
only up to one month after final inspection; client will be billed for additional
training beyond that prescribed in the contract. Exclusions further define the
boundary of the project by stating what is not included. Examples include: data
will be collected by the client, not the contractor; a house will be built, but no
landscaping or security devices added; software will be installed, but no training given.
Reviews with customer. Completion of the scope checklist ends with a review
with your customer—internal or external. The main concern here is the understanding and agreement of expectations. Is the customer getting what he or she
desires in deliverables? Does the project definition identify key accomplishments, budgets, timing, and performance requirements? Are questions of limits
and exclusions covered? Clear communication in all these issues is imperative
to avoid claims or misunderstanding.
Scope definition should be as brief as possible but complete; one or two pages
are typical for small projects. See Snapshot from Practice: Scope Statement on
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104 Chapter 4 Defining the Project
SNAPSHOT FROM PRACTICE
Big Bertha II versus the USGA’s COR
© Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
In 1991 Callaway Golf Equipment introduced their Big Bertha
driver and revolutionized the golf equipment business. Big
Bertha—named after the World War I German long-distance
cannon—was much larger than conventional woods and
lacked a hosel (the socket in the head of the club into which
the shaft is inserted) so that the weight could be better distributed throughout the head. This innovative design gave the
clubhead a larger sweet spot, which allowed a player to strike
the golf ball off-center and not suffer much loss in distance or
accuracy. Callaway has maintained its preeminent position in
the golf industry by utilizing space-age technology to extend
the accuracy and distance of golf equipment.
In 2000 Callaway introduced the Big Bertha ERC II forged titanium driver. The driver was technologically superior to any driver
on the market. However, there was one big problem. The new
version of Bertha did not conform to the coefficient of restitution
(COR) requirement established by the United States Golf Association (USGA). As a result it was barred from use by golfers in
North America who intended to play by USGA’s Rules of Golf.
The USGA believed that the rapid technological advances
in golf equipment made by Callaway Golf and other golf manufacturers were threatening the integrity of the game. Players
were hitting balls so much farther and straighter that golf
courses around the world were being redesigned to make
them longer and more difficult.
So in 1998 the USGA established performance thresholds
for all new golf equipment. In order to prevent manufacturers
from developing more powerful clubs, the USGA limited the
COR of new golf equipment to 0.83. The COR was calculated by
firing a golf ball at a driver out of a cannon-like machine at
109 miles per hour. The speed that the ball returned to the cannon could not exceed 83 percent of its initial speed (90.47 mph).
The USGA called the ratio of incoming to outgoing velocity the
coefficient of restitution (COR). The intent of the USGA COR
threshold was to limit the distance that golf balls could be hit
since studies indicated that 0.01 increase in COR resulted in
two extra yards of carry. The Big Bertha ERC II’s COR was 0.86.
After numerous efforts to get USGA to change its technical
requirements, Callaway’s engineers went back to the drawing
board and in 2002 introduced Great Big Bertha II, which conformed to USGA’s 0.83 COR restriction.
* John E. Gamble. “Callaway Golf Company: Sustaining Advantage in a
Changing Industry,” in A. A. Thompson, J. E. Gamble, and A. J. Strickland,
Strategy: Winning in the Marketplace, Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2004,
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Chapter 4 Defining the Project 105
SNAPSHOT FROM PRACTICE
3. Exterior wall insulation must meet an “R” factor of 21.
To construct a high-quality, custom home within
five months at cost not to exceed $500,000.
4. Ceiling insulation must meet an “R” factor of 38.
A 2,200-square-foot, 2½-bath, 3-bedroom, finished home.
A finished garage, insulated and sheetrocked.
Kitchen appliances to include range, oven, microwave,
High-efficiency gas furnace with programmable thermostat.
5. Floor insulation must meet an “R” factor of 25.
6. Garage will accommodate two large-size cars and one
7. Structure must pass seismic stability codes.
LIMITS AND EXCLUSIONS
1. The home will be built to the specifications and design of
the original blueprints provided by the customer.
2. Owner is responsible for landscaping.
1. Permits approved—March 5
2. Foundation poured—March 14
3. Drywall in. Framing, sheathing, plumbing, electrical, and
mechanical inspections passed—May 25
4. Final inspection—June 7
1. Home must meet local building codes.
2. All windows and doors must pass NFRC class 40 energy
3. Refrigerator is not included among kitchen appliances.
4. Air conditioning is not included but prewiring is included.
5. Contractor reserves the right to contract out services.
6. Contractor is responsible for subcontracted work.
7. Site work limited to Monday through Friday, 8:00 A.M. to
John and Joan Smith
The checklist on pages 102–103 is generic. Different industries and companies
will develop unique checklists and templates to fit their needs and specific kinds
of projects. A few companies engaged in contracted work refer to scope statements as “statements of work” (SOW). Other organizations use the term project
charter. However, the term project charter has emerged to have a special meaning
in the world of project management. A project charter refers to a document that
authorizes the project manager to initiate and lead the project. This document is
issued by upper management and provides the project manager with written authority to use organizational resources for project activities. Often the charter will
include a brief scope description as well as such items as risk limits, customer
needs, spending limits, and even team composition.
Many projects suffer from scope creep, which is the tendency for the project
scope to expand over time—usually by changing requirements, specifications, and
priorities. Scope creep can be reduced by carefully writing your scope statement.
A scope statement that is too broad is an invitation for scope creep. Scope creep
can have a positive or negative effect on the project, but in most cases scope creep
means added costs and possible project delays. Changes in requirements, specifications, and priorities frequently result in cost overruns and delays. Examples are
abundant—Denver airport baggage handling system; Boston’s new freeway system (“The Big Dig”); China’s fast train in Shanghai; and the list goes on. On software development projects, scope creep is manifested in bloated products in which
added functionality undermines ease of use.
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106 Chapter 4 Defining the Project
If the project scope needs to change, it is critical to have a sound change control
process in place that records the change and keeps a log of all project changes.
The log identifies the change, impact, and those responsible for accepting or rejecting a proposed change.
Change control is one of the topics of Chapter 7. Project managers in the field
constantly suggest that dealing with changing requirements is one of their most
Step 2: Establishing Project Priorities
Quality and the ultimate success of a project are traditionally defined as meeting
and/or exceeding the expectations of the customer and/or upper management in
terms of cost (budget), time (schedule), and performance (scope) of the project
(see Figure 4.1). The interrelationship among these criteria varies. For example,
sometimes it is necessary to compromise the performance and scope of the project
to get the project done quickly or less expensively. Often the longer a project takes,
the more expensive it becomes. However, a positive correlation between cost and
schedule may not always be true. Other times project costs can be reduced by
using cheaper, less efficient labor or equipment that extends the duration of the
project. Likewise, as will be seen in Chapter 9, project managers are often forced
to expedite or “crash” certain key activities by adding additional labor, thereby
raising the original cost of the project.
One of the primary jobs of a project manager is to manage the trade-offs
among time, cost, and performance. To do so, project managers must define and
understand the nature of the priorities of the project. They need to have a candid
discussion with the project customer and upper management to establish the relative importance of each criterion. For example, what happens when the customer
keeps adding requirements? Or if, midway through the project, a trade-off must be
made between cost and expediting, which criterion has priority?
One technique found in practice that is useful for this purpose is completing a
priority matrix for the project to identify which criterion is constrained, which
should be enhanced, and which can be accepted:
Constrain. The original parameter is fixed. The project must meet the completion date, specifications and scope of the project, or budget.
Enhance. Given the scope of the project, which criterion should be optimized?
In the case of time and cost, this usually means taking advantage of opportunities to either reduce costs or shorten the schedule. Conversely, with regard to
performance, enhancing means adding value to the project.
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Chapter 4 Defining the Project 107
Accept. For which criterion is it tolerable not to meet the original parameters?
When trade-offs have to be made, is it permissible for the schedule to slip, to
reduce the scope and performance of the project, or to go over budget?
Figure 4.2 displays the priority matrix for the development of a new wireless modem. Because time to market is important to sales, the project manager is instructed to take advantage of every opportunity to reduce completion time. In
doing so, going over budget is acceptable though not desirable. At the same time,
the original performance specifications for the modem as well as reliability standards cannot be compromise …
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